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NDACAN Measure Details

Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12)


Ware, J.E., Kosinski M., & Keller, S.D. (1996). A 12-item short-form health survey: Construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Medical Care, 34(3), 220-233. Retrieved from:

Ware, J. E., Jr., Kosinski, M., Turner-Bowker, D. M., & Gandek, B. In 2002 (Ed.), How to score version 2 of the SF-12 health survey (with a supplement documenting version 1). Lincoln, RI: QualityMetric, Incorporated. Retrieved from: