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NDACAN Measure Details

Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D)- 12-Item Short Form


The Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale, 12-Item Short Form is a screening tool to assess the presence and severity of depressive symptoms occurring over the past week. The 12-item short form of this self-administered questionnaire takes fewer than 10 minutes to complete. Respondents are asked to rate how often each of the items (for example, “I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me”) applied to them in the past week, on a four-point Likert scale (from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time). Alpha coefficients are high for the original CES-D (0.83 to 0.92); concurrent validity by clinical and self-report criteria and substantial evidence of construct validity have been demonstrated (Radloff 1977). The questionnaire is available in Spanish.


Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385-401. doi: